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Annual Training Programe Essay

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Annual Training Program: Footballer

Needs and analysis of football
Football is comprised of numerous sprints interspersed with active and passive recovery, 25% walking, 37% jogging, 20% sub-maximal cruising, 11% sprinting and 7% moving backwards (some movements done with the ball) (Hawkins 2004, shepherd and Astrand 2000), their heart rates often reach 65%-85% maximum (Bangsbo et al (1991) and Mohr et al (2003). Andrezjewski et al (2012) recorded that athletes can cover a distance of 9,845m-11,527m in a full 90min game, these results show the importance of aerobic fitness within football players. Research from Bloomfield et al (2007) and Reilly and Thomas (1976) show there are over 1,000 actions made during one game, alternating from headers, passes, tackles and other actions. Withers et al (1982) state that footballers need to recover quickly between intense activities, meaning aerobic conditioning is required. Aerobic fitness is vital within the second half as skill level declines due to fatigue, Helgerud et al (2001) stated, fitter players are able to sustain performance through the entire game. The fitness elements, suppleness, speed, stamina, strength and skill (5 S’s) need to be intertwined with technical and tactical training, each section of training targets one of these attributes (Bompa and Haff 2009).
The energy systems are under pressure and need to be developed (Hawkins 2004). Bangsbo et al (1991) estimates football to be 90% aerobically fuelled (phosphagen) and 10% glycolictic (Powers and Howley 2004).   Fatigue occurs when glycogen depletes and the temporary tiredness between sprints is a result of the intramuscular reduction of phosphocreatine concentrations. The aerobic metabolism is essential to rephosphorylate the creatine and inorganic phosphate to re-make phosphocreatine (Bangsbo et al 2006).
The most common injuries to the sport include ACL injuries (21%) and Hamstring strains (Woods et al 2004 and 2002). Hamstring injuries often occur...

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