Introduction to Anthropology
Anthropology is the science of studying people and their culture. People who study anthropology are called anthropologists. There are four main types of anthropology; including linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, archaeology, and biological or physical anthropology. Each type studies different aspects of people and their respective cultures.
Anthropology exists to explore a variety of social phenomena. Benefits associated with this area of research lies in its use of a macro perspective on the development and sustainability of human culture. Anthropologists pose important questions concerning the continuation of poverty, racism, violence, and social inequality around the world. It asks the questions why do humans have such different ways of living, thinking, and acting? Addressing differences may also include the differences between men and women and how and why this situation continues to exist. From a global context, what impact is technology having on the homogeneity of the new global community? Communication technology increases the transmission of ideas and culture across vast distances allowing for the extension of cultural beliefs. Like the other areas of the social sciences, there are specialized areas that focus on a particular area of anthropology.
Functionalism (Robert K. Merton)
Robert King Merton bases his interpretation of society using the functionalist perspective. He believes that it is necessary to interpret social data by their consequences for larger structures in which they are implicated . An important part of his theory is also the relationship of shared values between society and its institutions. Merton explains how expected consequences, manifest functions, and unintended consequences, latent functions, impact on the functioning of society . Merton is famous for coining the pharase "self-fulfilling prophecy." He also created the other phrases that are frequently used, such as "role model" and...