APGAP Midterm Review Guide
Chapter 1: Introducing Government in America
* Describe the contemporary theories of democracy:
* Elitism-A government and politics theory that states that societies are divided by classes and the upper-class elite rules by influencing government, regardless of a government organization created to prevent this.
* Hyper-pluralism-A government and politics theory that states that groups are so strong that they weaken the government and cripple its ability to make policies. This is an extreme version of pluralism.
* Pluralism-A government and politics theory that states that politics is influenced by competing groups who press for their preferred public policies through organized efforts.
* Define and give an example of the following components of the traditional democratic theory:
* Equality in voting- The principle of “one person, one vote. Voting must be representative. All votes must be worth the same amount.
* Effective participation- Citizens must have adequate and equal opportunities to express their preferences throughout the decision making process
* Enlightened understanding-Free press and free speech are essential to civic understanding. Information must be free and available, not distorted, in order for people to understand.
* Citizen control of the agenda- Citizens should have the collective right to control the government’s policy agenda
* Inclusion-The government must include and extend rights to all those subject to its laws
* Describe what governments have in common in providing for their citizens
* All governments maintain a national defense, provide public service, preserve order, socialize the young, and collect taxes.
* Define government and politics
* Government-The institutions that make the public policies for a society.
* Politics-The process of determining those who are selected as government leaders and what policies these leaders will pursue.