1.1 The Main Stages of Child and Young Person Development
In general, child development progresses:
• From head to toe. Beginning at the top of the body and gradually moving downwards.
• From inner to outer. Firstly gaining control of muscles close to the trunk/head and then moving outwards so the large muscles in the shoulders and upper arms/thighs are first and the extremities last.
• From simple to complex; children progress from simple words to complex sentences.
• From general to specific; emotional responses involve the whole body in young babies but may involve only the face in an older child.
Development – Ages 0-3 years
By 6 months a child will:
• Turn their head toward sounds and movement
• Watch an adult's face when feeding
• Smile at familiar faces and voices
• Reach up to hold feet when lying on their backs
• Look and reach for objects
• Hold and shake a rattle
• Put everything in their mouths
Between 6 months and 1 year:
• Move from sitting with support to sitting alone
• Roll over from their tummy to their back
• Begin to creep, crawl or shuffle on their bottom
• Pull on or push against adult hands or furniture to reach a standing position
• Raises arms to be lifted
• Turn and look up when they hear their name
• Pat and poke objects when playing
• Pass objects from hand to hand
• Look for things that have been hidden or dropped
• Reaches hand towards source of food
Between one and two years:
• Begin to walk
• Sits alone indefinitely
• Feed themselves
• Push and pull toys while walking
• Wave goodbye
• Point or make noises to indicate wants
• Enjoy a picture book
• Shake head for 'No'
• Uses thumb and first two fingers to grip
• Bangs objects together
• Crawl upstairs
• Stoops to pick things up from the floor
• Begins to show preference for one hand
• Builds tower of few bricks
• Holds crayon in palm and makes marks on paper
Between two and three...