Write one page on how a basic DC motor operates. Describe the function of each of the different parts of the basic DC motor. Be sure to include the armature, and commutator (may be called a ‘”split-ring commutator”). Draw (no pictures, print-outs, etc) a basic DC motor, labeling its main parts.
The article How Electric Motors Workexplains how brushed motors work. In a typical DC motor, there are permanentmagnets on the outside and a spinningarmature on the inside. The permanent magnets are stationary, so they are called the stator. The armature rotates, so it is called the rotor.
The armature contains an electromagnet. When you run electricity into this electromagnet, it creates a magnetic field in the armature that attracts and repels the magnets in the stator. So the armature spins through 180 degrees. To keep it spinning, you have to change the poles of the electromagnet. The brushes handle this change in polarity. They make contact with two spinning electrodes attached to the armature and flip the magnetic polarity of the electromagnet as it spins.
This setup works and is simple and cheap to manufacture, but it has a lot of problems:
* The brushes eventually wear out.
* Because the brushes are making/breaking connections, you get sparking and electrical noise.
* The brushes limit the maximum speed of the motor.
* Having the electromagnet in the center of the motor makes it harder to cool.
* The use of brushes puts a limit on how many poles the armature can have.
With the advent of cheap computers and power transistors, it became possible to "turn the motor inside out" and eliminate the brushes. In a brushless DC motor (BLDC), you put the permanent magnets on the rotor and you move the electromagnets to the stator. Then you use a computer (connected to high-power transistors) to charge up the electromagnets as the shaft turns. This system has all sorts of advantages:
* Because a computer controls the motor instead of mechanical...