EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT
Management is universal. It can and should be applied in all industries and arts which require organizing. With the increase in the complexities of management of business concerns, the importance of ‘management’ has increased enormously.
Management is both a science and an art, it provides aid and ease of organizing to almost everything that tends to complicate itself. The roots of management are traced back below.
The evolution of management thought can be analyzed in three different stages:
1. Pre- scientific management period.
2. Early management approaches represented by scientific management, process management theory and human relations movement.
3. Modern management approaches represented by behavioral science movement, quantitative approach, systems approach etc
PRE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT PERIOD
The real development of management thought began with the scientific management approach stated by Taylor, though some of the concepts have been developed by thinkers earlier to Taylor. Early management thoughts have come from the Roman Catholic Church, military organizations, the Cameraliasts, a group of German and Austrian public administrators and intellectuals from the sixteenth centuries. Their concepts of management were mostly related to the principles of specialization, selection of subordinates and their training and simplification of administrative procedures.
In the later period, contributions were made by Charles Babbage, James Watt and Robinson Boulton, Robert Owen, Towne and Simon.
Charles Babbage was professor of Mathematics at the Cambridge University and he suggested the use of accurate data obtained through rigid investigation in the management of an undertaking. James Watt Junior (1796-1848) and Robinson Boulton (1770-1842) used the management techniques such as market research and forecasting, production planning, planned...