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Quality Control Lab for Athenium Baking Soda Company

Alex
Kevin
Section
1-20-2014

Introduction

Baking soda, or more commonly known as sodium bicarbonate, has various uses within the kitchen, as well as being an important aspect in the physiology of our bodies. It has the formula of NaHCO3. Baking soda is immensely useful, having the ability to neutralize acids (commonly used for acid indigestion), smells, and when used in the kitchen, has the useful ability to make things rise, such as in breads and other baked goods. With the Athenium Baking Soda Company mass-producing sodium bicarbonate, they have chosen the method of reacting crystalline ammonium hydrogen carbonate with brine (salt water).

NH4HCO3 (s) + NaCl (aq) → NaHCO3 (aq) + NH4Cl (aq)

This is a method that is effective, however the brine solution has the potential to contain many contaminants, therefore, these contaminants may find there way into the finished product. These contaminants are known specifically as potassium chloride (KCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), and calcium chloride (CaCl2). The procedures to be used to determine these different contaminants will be gravimetric analysis, titration, and emission spectroscopy.
Thermal Gravimetric Analysis is used to determine the percentage by mass a certain component will have within a mixture.  The procedure will include putting a measured amount of the compound into a crucible and heating it.  This process will rid the compound of CO2 and H2O in the form of gases.  The equation is as follows:

2NaHCO3 (s) → Na2CO3 (s) + CO2 (g) + H2O (g)

With the calculated mass of CO2 and H2O lost from the compound, the exact amount of sodium bicarbonate can be calculated.  A percent by mass will then be calculated to determine if the company’s baking soda product does indeed contain any contaminants.
The next step in experimental procedure is titration.  In this section of the experiment, a Na2CO3 (sodium carbonate) sample will be placed in an...

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