* Conservatives, Liberals, Reformers, and Yuobang follow the process of fang-shou- a tightening up, loosening up cycle- a waxing and waning of power of each. Part of the dominance of the reformers has to do with the lingering influences of Deng Xiaoping, who designated before his death in 1997 that Jiang Zemin would be the “3rd generation” (after Mao and Deng) leader, and Hu Jintao would be the “4th generation leader.
* The cycle is consisted of three types of actions/policies- economic reform, political movements (letting go), and a tightening up by the CCP.
* With each reform that reflects economic liberalization, liberal factions react with a demand for political liberalization, which the party responds to with force.
* The cycle is characterized by a lack of transparency, with policymakers meeting behind closed doors and only revealing their plans when the government takes action.
Democracy and Human Rights
* Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the CCP did not consolidate his power until after Deng’s death in 1997. Zhu Rongji former governor of the central bank also emerges as an influential leader.
* Despite continuing tensions between economic and political policy, some democratic reforms can be seen in these ways-
* Some input from the National Peoples Congress is accepted by the Politburo
* More emphasis is placed on laws and legal procedures
* Village elections are now semi-competitive, with choices of candidates and some freedom from the party’s control.
* Tiananmen Crisis began as a grief demonstration for the death of Hu Yaobang- a liberal who had earlier resigned from the Politburo under pressure form the conservatives.
* UN official’s estimates of fatalities range from 700 to several thousands. Since then, China has been under a great deal of pressure from international human rights organizations to democratize their political process and to abide by human rights...