Synergy is defined as an action that results in an effect that is different from the individual summation of the substances. In other words, synergy results when the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. For example, a heavy object can be moved more easily by two people working together than the two working individually can each move their half of the burden. Synergy can be a positive or negative outcome of their combined efforts.
According to the merriam-webster dictionary synergy is “a mutually advantageous conjunction or compatibility of distinct business participants or elements (as resources or efforts)”. Positive synergy is also referred by the name 2 + 2 = 5 effect. Operating independently, each system can produce two units of output. By combining the effort of individuals and working together effectively, the two systems working together can produce five units of output. This can be illustrated by means of the music that we all love to hear. A person might be proficient in playing a musical instrument. It can be a flute, drum or a table. We enjoy their individual performances but if they perform as a choir or a rock band it gives us more pleasure.
Negative synergy can be called on similar lines of positive synergy as the 2 + 2 = 3 effect. Again, individuals operating alone can each produce two units of output. But by this negative synergy, the combination of their efforts results in less output than what they would have achieved if they had each worked alone. Negative synergy can result from inefficient committees, business units that lack strategic fit, and from other poorly functioning joint efforts. To illustrate negative synergy we can take the example of India and Pakistan. Both these countries have been in several wars that has killed thousands. And there are also many other kinds of systemic and cultural oppression, prejudice, and hatred that has lasted for the last few decades. We will only concentrate only on the positive...