Definitions within Memory
Memory - is the processes by which information is encoded, stored and retrieved.
Encoding - is the way in which information is stored in the memory, either semantic or acoustic- information is basically put into a code.
Storage - is the storing memory for a period of time so it can be used in the future.
Retrieval - is recovering information which is stored in the LTM- if retrieval is successful the individual remembers the information in question.
Capacity - The short term store has very limited capacity, about 7 items. In contrast the capacity of the long term memory is assumed to be so large that it cannot be filled, it is said to have unlimited capacity and lasts potentially forever.
Duration - Information lasts longer in the long term store than in the short term store,. There is evidence that in the short term store, if not rehearsed, information will disappear within about 18 – 20 seconds and in contrast there is evidence that elderly people can recognise the names of fellow students from 48 years previously.
Capacity in STM (Miller 1956): 7±2 chunks of information.
RESEARCH: Peterson and Peterson (1959) – Duration in Short Term Memory
❖ They aimed to study how long information remains in short term memory, using simple stimuli and not allowing the participants to rehearse the material presented to them
❖ They wanted to test the hypothesis that information not rehearsed is lost rapidly from short-term memory.
❖ They used the ‘Brown-Peterson’ technique.
❖ On each trial participants were presented with a trigram consisting of 3 consonants e.g. BVM, CTG which they knew they would have to recall in the correct order.
❖ Recall was required after a delay of 3, 6, 6, 12, 15, or 18 seconds.
❖ Between the initial presentation of the trigram and the time participants were asked to recall, they were told to count back in threes from a random 3 digit number...