Nursing, as described by the American Nurses Association, “is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations” (American Nurses Association, 2013). Perioperative nursing is the care of clients undergoing surgery.
The term perioperative nursing is used to describe preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative nurses that work as a team to ensure proper surgical care is given. In the operating room, nursing care is provided by a circulating nurse and/or a scrub nurse. Circulating nurses manage the care of the patient undergoing surgery, they assist anesthesia, monitors for breaks in sterility technique and assists with the needs of the surgeon. Scrub nurses work directly with the sterile field and the surgeon, the pass instruments and items needed for surgery.
Perioperative nursing takes into account the metaparadigm of nursing, which consists of the persons, environment, health, and nursing.
Person in perioperative nursing refers to be patient and the patient’s family. According to Neuman’s Systems Model, the person is composed of psychological, sociocultural, physiological, developmental and variables (Creasia & Friberg, 2011). These variables affect how the person views surgery and the type of pre and postoperative teaching.
Environment as described in Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory is external and connected to the patient forming a cohesive system (Creasia & Friberg, 2011). The environment is a key concept in perioperative nursing. It includes the preoperative area, operating room, the sterile field and the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). It is important to have a calm preoperative area and PACU to help reduce the stress of the client and aid in preoperative teaching. Increased stress and anxiety has been shown to increase the...