1. What is the object of analysis of sociology? How does it represent a second order of observation of human society?
from Giddens: „Sociology: Issues and Problems,“ chapter one of Sociology: A Brief but Critical Introduction
Context of Sociology – the development of sociology started after the changes brought by „two great revolutions“. The changes totally dissolved the forms of social organization in which humankind had lived for thousands of years of its previous history.
French revolution of 1789 – symbol of political transformation. For the first time in history there happened the overall dissolution of a social order by a movement guided by purely secular ideals – universal liberty and equality (different from other rebellions).
Industrial Revolution – Britain in the late 18th century and spreading in the 19th century throughout Western Europe and the US. Apart from set of technical innovation, there were much broader social and economic changes. The most important of these was the migration of the labor force from the land into the expanding sectors of industrial work. This process promoted an expansion of cities. So industrialism and urbanism were the cores of the transformations that dissolved most traditional forms of society. The third is the increase in the number of people in the world today.
Sociology came into being in order to understand the conditions of the emergence of the revolutions and their likely consequences.
Sociology is concerned with the study of human societies (that would include from industrialized to small tribal communities). Society is a cluster or system of institutionalized modes of conduct – that is beliefs and behavior that occur and recur (is socially reproduced), for example language. But other aspects may be institutionalized, that is commonly adopted that they persist over generations – that’s why we have political, economic etc. institutions.
Society as and object of study is shared by other social sciences...