A. Demography is the study of the size, composition, and distribution of human populations and the causes and consequences of changes in these characteristics.
B. Population increases through births and immigration and decreases through deaths and emigration. [population change = (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration)]
1. The crude birth rate is the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a specific year.
2. The crude death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a specific year.
D. The annual rate of natural population change (%) equals birth rate minus death rate divided by 1,000 persons multiplied by 100.
2. The rate of the world’s population growth has decreased.
3. The annual population growth dropped by almost half between 1963 and 2004, from 2.2% to 1.2%. But during this same period, the population base doubled from 3.2 to 6.4 billion.
4. There is a big difference in the exponential population growth rates of developed and developing countries, with developed countries growing at 0.25% and developing countries growing at 1.46% almost six times faster.
5. The six fastest growing countries in terms of population are: India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and Indonesia.
E. The changing nature of fertility rates effect population growth.
a. Replacement-level fertility is the number of children needed to replace their parents.
b. Total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children that a woman has during her fertile years.
F. There are apt to be between 7.2–10.6 billion people by 2050, with 97% of this growth to be in developing countries. These countries have acute poverty as a way of life for about 1.4 billion people.